How to Build an Electric Car

Hybrid Cars The Whole Truth Revealed

Hybrid Cars The Whole Truth Revealed

Hybrid Cars! Man! Is that a HOT topic right now! There are some good reasons why hybrids are so hot. If you’ve pulled your present car or SUV or truck up next to a gas pumpand inserted the nozzle, you know exactly what I mean! I written this book to give you some basic information on some things<br />you may have been wondering about.

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Tiie Era Of Tue Electric Car Is Upon Us Again

Mass-produced electric cars are fi nally here. And, this time around, it appears they're here to stay. It's irrelevant that, depending on how their electricity is produced, electric vehicles don't come very close to living up to the zero-emission label they often receive. Also irrelevant is the point that batten' packs with enough capacity to power a vehicle for any significant range are prohibitively expensive today. That's because the trump card already has been played It's called government intervention. The Obama administration has started to unleash part of a planned 69 billion to thousands of clean-energy companies through tax credits, loans, and grants as well as to consumers, with a S7500 federal tax break for buying a car that has at least 16 kilowatt-hours (kWh) of energy stored in a batten' pack. Do you think it's a coincidence that the Chevrolet Volt's lithium-ion pack contains exactly that amount This is why GM calls the Volt an extended-range electric vehicle, and the...

Driving The New Chevrolet Volt

Much has been written about the Volt and its Opel Ampera stable-mate but, unlike the majority of competitors in the green car segment that are hybrids, Chevrolet insists that the Volt is a plug-in all-electric car. At the heart of the stylish machine lies the exclusive Voltec propulsion system, which grants a fuel range of a traditional saloon provided purely by electric power. Volt falls under the category E-REV (Extended-Range Electric Vehicle). Vehicles in this group, of which Volt is the first production model, aim to remove range anxiety of plug-in only electric vehicles. Plug-in models, such as theTesIa

Have Yourself A Very Merry

So does that mean we're going to get lots of electric cars zooming quietly around our streets in the NEXT 12 months I don't think so, and in fact they are going to be as rare as rocking horse poo for quite a while to come, with factors such as charging infrastructure and high cost just two of the factors which will mitigate against their general adoption. Meanwhile Hyundai is saying fuel cells are the future, and hybrids and pure electric cars are just an interim stage.

When The Secondgeneration

THE Senate Energy and Natural Resources Committee, which is responsible for energy issues in the US, has an ambitious goal by 2030, it would like half the cars and trucks on American roads to be electric vehicles. A 10-year, 3.6 billion plan has been approved, which benefits research and provides incentives, both to consumers to buy plug-in vehicles, and to selected communities to build the infrastructure required to charge EVs. The committee estimates that if the target is achieved, it could cut US demand for oil by about third.

Bulletin I Hyundai On The Move

The slusher comes complete with a hybrid module that can add a 34kW zero-emissions e-hit. Eco car fans take note. Carbon emissions in the UK, early adopters of congestion charges and vehicle C02 taxation, fell 8 in 2009 to 520 million tonnes of CO2, according to the latest global rankings. That places them tenth in the worldwide polluters chart. But get this emissions in China leapt 13 to 7.7 billion tonnes in the same yean making it by far and away the biggest carbon emitter. Makes you wonder if a few electric cars will merely appease our conscience rather than make a difference, doesn't it

The fastest most expensive

Fisker and tesla are only the tip of the iceberg when it comes to electric-car start-up companies. Often consisting of little more than a California dreamer, some Detroit exiles, and a little bit of money in some cases your money any one of these ventures could become the next Toyota. Or they could all collapse tomorrow. For now, though, it's all blue-sky optimism. Here's a sampling, far from exhaustive, of green cars you've probably never heard of but can buy now or in the very near future. A three-wheel, two-seat electric vehicle styled after a bird flying through the wind.

Bmw Executives Were

M force in Beijing to publicise their upcoming lme of Megacity electric vehicles. The assault took place as the company readies the Chinese leg of the Mini E test phase. Fifty customers in China will begin testing the all-electric version of the Mini Cooper later this year, while others will get the chance in 2011 to test a fleet of care based on the BMW ActiveE Concept. This will essentially be a beta test of the Megacity Vehicle project, which will see BMW's first series-production electric-drive model launched on the global market in 2013.

Innovation still rife after 125 years

The company also used the opportunity to announce new technology. Mercedes has gained a patent for what it is calling'bipolar, fiat-cell frame' lithium-ion battery technology. Its production, too, is protected. The single-cell technology is more compact, cooler and more efficient than current accumulator batteries for electric cars. Mazda is also independently developing an electric vehicle, wilh plans to commence leasing it in japan in the spring of 2012. The new EV, based on the 2, is expected to have a driving range of 200km and will be leased mainly to local government bodies and fleet customers. Through this programme, Mazda hopes to enhance its knowledge of EV usage requirements and electric drive technologies. EC

Gordon Murray Is Developing An

All-electric three-seater city car that could become the world's greenest electric vehicle. Dubbed the T27, the British-developed EV is a 9 million ( NZ20m) enterprise underway between Gordon Murray Design, engineering firm Zytek Automotive and other consortium partners - and ls on schedule to reach prototype stage by April 2011,

It Looks Like Chrysler Is Jumping

Into the electric vehicle (EV) market with both feet. Late in the fall the company unveiled three EV prototypes a mirnvan, a sports car, and a Jeep and said one of the three would go into production for North America in 2010. No hints were given as to which Chrysler called the EV Wrangler a Range-extended Electric Vehicle because it has a small gasoline engine onboard to produce energy as needed for the 200 kW electric motor (268 hp, 295 lb-ft). Using lithium-ion batteries, the motor will power the Jeep on electricity alone for 40 miles with about 8 gallons of gas on board for the engine, that range jumps to 400 miles.

Automotive Products Limited

IS NISSAN S ALL-NEW ELECTRIC VEHICLE THE SEED OF A ZERO-EMISSION REVOLUTION Quietly preparing the Leaf what could be the most significant vehicle of the century. With plans for a limited, worldwide launch in 2010, Nissan claims the Leaf will be the first affordable, mass-market electric vehicle. For roughly 25,000, Nissan says the Leaf will provide 100 miles of

Whats Stalling VWs Ecar

Nissan will start selling its electric Leaf this fall (see below), BMW's Mini subsidiary has a small number of Mini Es running around California, and Mercedes-Benz has announced plans to lease its electric Smart to a select few. But Volkswagen's electric car, the Golf blue-e-motion, isn't quite ready for prime time. Which is surprising, because the vehicle is so well executed that we are left wondering why it won't go into production immediately.

The chassis production low volume versatile vehicle architecture

Without altering the exterior dimensions. The ability to lengthen or shorten extrusions with the option to tailor the chassis stiffness, vastly increases the number of vehicles that can be developed from this vehicle architecture. Front and mid engine installations have been considered, as well as hybrid and Electric Vehicle (EV) applications.

Photography By Jim Fets

Although classifying the Volt as a hybrid or an extended-range electric is a matter of semantics, it is unquestionably an electric car from the driver's seat. It launches with whisper-quiet, high-pitched whirs, which are exchanged for the subtle din of wind noise as it reaches speed. A power output of 149 hp won't impress anyone, but 273 lb-ft of torque and a responsive right pedal make it more lively than your typical compact car. Electric propulsion also redefines powertrain refinement. There is no nudge from a transmission swapping cogs or the CVT-induced drone of a strained engine. Power delivery is fluid, acceleration is smooth, and cruising is nearly silent. GM's official line on range formerly said to be 41) miles of electric driving is now hedged as 25 to 50 miles, due to the profound effect that driving style, exterior temperature, and accessory use have on range. On a suburban route with typical traffic and driving behavior, we covered 40.8 miles in pure electric mode.

Carbon Fibre And Collision Repair

Carbon fibre is better known for its use on race cars although its use for parts on road-going vehicles dates back to 2003. Until now its cost - which can be as much as five times that of traditional materials - and availability have hampered carbon fibre's widespread use. All that is about to change, however in May BMW AG announced that it would be making extensive use of the advanced material in its 2013 BMW Megacity electric vehicle. This will make the German manufacturer the first to employ carbon fibre in a high-production context. In order to meet its demand, BMW has entered into a partnership with Europe's SLG Group to build a 100 million (R734 million) carbon fibre manufacturing facility in the US state of Washington.

The Grid Gets Smarter

Preparing for the expected invasion of plug-in hybrids and pure-electric vehicles, public utilities such as Southern California Edison are overhauling with high-tech smart meters that can tell the difference between a running microwave oven and a charging-up Nissan Leaf or Chevrolet Volt. These meters will also encourage owners to leverage the unused capacity during off-peak hours, thus allowing the utility to support a sizable fleet of E Vs without having to increase overall electrical-grid capacity.

What The Jag Is Like To Live With

EVER heard of I range anxiety It's one of the terms that has come to define electric car development over the past 12 months - and is used as shorthand to describe a string of emotions linked to driving an expensive, conspicuous, hi-tech machine that offers few guarantees of being able to reach its intended destination.

By Dennis Simanaitis Photos By Chris Cantle And The Author

Photographer Chris Cantle is documenting part of the trip and our first photo op is a busy corner nearby where I mix it up with other traffic. This Equinox is an electric car, of course, with gobs of instant torque getting me across the intersection first. However, the car's instrumentation shows I'm getting only around 40 miles

The car of the future

WHAT WILL THE car of 2020 be like Petrol, diesel, hybrid, electric, hydrogen Something else Most manufacturers agree on one thing personal mobility will involve a range of technologies. Battery EVs and plug-in hybrids are causing excitement today, but one technology is beginning to emerge as both practical and sustainable- the range-extended electric vehicle.

Atomic Batteries To Power

Muscle Engine Vector

SAAB has released pictures and details of its first all-electric vehicle, the 9-3 ePower. The company describes the ePower as 'the first practical family wagon with all-electric propulsion' and claims a range of 198 kilometres. A 70-strong test fleet will apparently be built, due to start real-world, data-logged trials in Sweden at the beginning of 2012. This prototype will not make it to production, but the modified floorpan is to be used as the basis for Saab's new 'Phoenix Architecture', which will underpin the next-generation 9-3 and 9-5, opening the way for fully electric versions of future medium- and large-car ranges from the auto maker.

Special Advertising Section

The Volt is the first electric car that eliminates range anxiety. After 40 miles of driving, it keeps rolling with a gasoline-powered generator supplying the propulsion energy. For the next 300 miles, there's no stopping to plug in or refuel. While electric cars are nothing new a century ago they enjoyed equal footing with steam and gas vehicles the Chevy Volt is the first electric to offer four seats, an affordable price, and genuine, everyday practicality. All it took was an unwavering commitment to a bold idea and a few engineering breakthroughs. More than three years of research and one million test miles were required to perfect the Volt's lithium-ion battery. GM engineers assigned to this project have applied for scores of patents covering the Volt's propulsion system. To minimize aerodynamic drag, Volt designers tweaked the exterior shape in the wind tunnel. The 150-horsepower AC motor is manufactured by the company that builds Japanese bullet-train motors. But the Volt's most...

Lithium Battery Cost Is Still Extreme

In describing trends from demonstration through niche to mass market, Anderman noted that nickel metal hydride technology makes up 99 percent of today's advanced automotive battery market, predominately in strong hybrid electric vehicles, i.e., the Toyota Prius and similar full HEVs. Lithium batteries offer greater specific power and energy, and they're the preferred technology for plug-in HEVs and pure battery electric vehicles (BEVs). However, energy density, calendar and cycle life, reliability, safety and cost are still big challenges, if matters arc pushed prematurely, Anderman observed, things could backfire. The industry, lie said, docs not need a 2011 version of Who Killed the Electric Car the Electric Car

The Strange Thing About The Latest

On the non-event side, many who have sampled previous-generation electric cars (including extended-range vehicles with electrically driven wheels) have discovered that there's hardly any noise, amazingly little driving to do and absolutely no reward for precise operation by the driver. These cars have golf-cart performance, wheelbarrow the battery-powered Nissan Leaf and the Opel Vauxhall Ampera E-REV (for extended-range electric vehicle). They may both be electrically driven but they're very different from each other. The Leaf is a car you charge from the mains - either for seven hours through a normal household plug, or in 30 minutes through a much meatier three-phase system - and when it runs out, you stop. You need to leave home with a plan of travel, but you're greatly assisted by instruments that count your range down, taking into account the way you're driving, and in the brave new world of emerging infrastructure, pointing out the nearest recharging stations. If you don't...

Peugeot Has Unveiled A

The EXl is a one-off,' said Peugeot design director Gilles Vidal. 'It has been built to push the boundaries of electric vehicle performance to show what Peugeot could make, given the design and engineering resources at its disposal. We don't expect to put it into production, but if there is enough interest in the car, it wouldn't be impossible as a very low-volume proposition.' PC

Efficiency And Acceleration

We've just driven the two most plausible current solutions to this future fuel frugality. To cut to the chase, after spending 32 days and 1880 miles in one of Toyota's Prius Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles (one of a 150-example U.S. test fleet deployed in advance of its 2012 production version), we observed an average of 70.4 mpg after precharging (3 hours using 120 volts) as often as conveniently possible.

Illustration By Tim Marrs

Tim Marrs Illustration

I'm also including the new 9-5, which I'm almost done with. Granted, it doesn't really make much sense to put all this time and money into the 9-5 now, but try telling that to my wife. She's all, We borrowed billions of dollars from my parents, and you need to build electric cars. And don't even think about supercharging the Camaro, mister. So, my loss, your gain. Well, your gain, assuming that the new 9-5 is any good. But if you give me a deposit or something to prove that you're not a dreamer or a tire-kicker, maybe I'll let you take a mule around the Nurburgring.

Designed To Re Noticed

As we go green with clean electric cars, somebody's going to get dirty. Lithium is in vogue, it's the wondrous battery material underlying the latter-day increase in cell-phone power, laptop life, and the driving ranges of electric cars. Here's why Lithium is light in fact, at No. 3 on the periodic table, it's the lightest metal and least-dense solid element in nature and its In a common lithium-ion battery cell, a solid of lithium-cobalt oxide coats one electrode, the cathode. Common carbon, often in the form ofgraphite, coats the anode. While the battery charges, the energy going in forces about half ofthe cathode's lithium ions to migrate through the electrolyte to the anode, where they wait for the opportunity to return to thei r brothers on the cathode. Step on it in your electric car, or switch on your phone, and the lithium ions move back through the electrolyte, stranding electrons on the anode the electrons then must take the long way back through the phone's circuits or the...

Delivers A Lowvoltage Shocktothe Cerebellum

Revelations are inevitable when you travel back more than a century to the dawn of speed records. One such revelation is that electric-car pioneer Camille Jen-atzy earned so little lasting acclaim for his achievements. Jenatzy, nicknamed Le Diable Rouge (the red devil) because of his flaming red hair and beard, was the original speed demon. On a whim, he entered a local hill-climb in November 1898 and won with an average velocity of 16 mph. The rakish Jenatzy loved the taste of victory and soon concluded that racing was an excellent means of promoting the electric cars he was manufacturing for Parisian taxicab use. Unlike modern electric cars noted for their instant torque and powerful initial acceleration, this car oozed from rest with glacial verve. In the space available, it mooed to 35 mph or so, gliding over the concrete joints as smoothly as a baby carriage. Neck strain from air pressure wasn't an issue, but my senses were definitely on the alert. To avoid stuffing Wannyn's...

Mazda Has So Far Resisted

Drag Coefficient

The urge to go hybrid but will have petrol-electric vehicles on sale by 2013. It will use Tbyota-supplied series parallel hybrid systems but will integrate them with its own petrol engines and transmissions, utilising the new 'Sky' direct-injection units and its new six-speed automatic gearbox, both of which will debut next year in conventional model series. Mazda will not develop standalone hybrids like the Prius or Honda Insight but will integrate the hybrid drive technology into conventional models, like the Mazda6.

First Factory Built Hybrid Karma

The Fisker Karma is the world's first premium plug-in hybrid electric vehicle. Designed and engineered in California, the four-door, four-passenger Karma is a series plug-in hybrid that combines the zero-emission benefits of an all-electric car with the full driving range of a conventional car. It will offer a

On Event Personal Accident Motortrade Commercial Liability

Developing and promoting electric cars in motorsport. I believe electric cars will be a part of our future, and being involved with the EV Cup from the start will help our team be a crack squad running them, said Drayson, who will drive a Westfield-based Racer. I believe it won't be very long before it will be possible to run an electric car at Le Mans and national racing is important for that, he said.

Innocuous Pellet Ejected Through Exhaust System

I have been a reader of Bedard for all 40 years Thoughts on my last day, August 2009 , A man of many parts. He wrote once about the enjoyment of owning an old car with a Hemi in it but also had fun with electric cars and getting the most out of them. I will never forget the picture of him at Indy, upside down, with his head inches from the track. And then later I read his seatbelt was too tight and he almost entered the race unbuckled. A man who told the truth about sensitive Issues. Nobody wants an injuted highway worker, but Pat showed us how statistics are skewed. He debunked things like hydrogen fuels and gas from corn. I shall miss his insight, his honesty, and his skill. In his photos he seems an average guy, but he leaves big shoes to fill. John Ladd

Broader View Of

The discussion profits from a broader definition of the term EV. And, in fact, the Promoting Electric Vehicle Act pertains to any grid-enabled plug-in vehicle. Here, though, let's have our alphabetical array include everything from conventional hybrids (HEVs) to plugin hybrids (PHEVs) to battery electrics (BEVs) to fuel-cell electrics (FCEVs).

The Complete Electrification Of The Automobile

In fact, similar discussions ensued concerning complete electrification of the automobile. Given the urban intent of a battery electric vehicle, is 100-mile range a good BEV target Or is there a larger market for a more mod-est and less costly BEV50 Think about a BEV with more performance and utility than today's Neighborhood Electric

Photography By Hemmings Staff

We headed back to Long Beach on Saturday morning, which was the last full day at sea and the last of the Hemmings seminars. This day's itinerary included tips on vintage car rallying, presentations on early steam and electric vehicles and Indian motorcycles, as well as a discussion on collecting books, magazines, brochures and press kits.

Driving Amazing Cars At Amazing Speeds

Today, I'm not sure I don't prefer torque to speed. Torque is a whole different thing. I have a 1905 Vandcrbilt Cup Stanley steam car and when you open that throttle you can get 0-60 in well, I don't know what the number is, but it feels extremely quick because you start with zero revs. I call it the Hand of God. It's a phrase I use to describe steam all the time. You open the throttle and it's as if your back is given a mighty shove. The Stanley probably has 600-700 Ib-ft from zero and you just open the throttle and pull away very quickly. Electric cars do the same thing.

Designed For Improved Performance Whatever You Drive

Car With Drag Coefficient

NISSAN is to unveil a concept vehicle in Paris that will offer an insight into its future EV portfolio. The Townpod concept combines 'eye-catching design with a spacious and practical interior'. Designed as a zero-emissions mobility solution, it's intended to 'appeal to a future generation of home-based, innovative entrepreneurs who are creative and tech-sawy. It heralds a new era of flexible, stylish vehicles that will bring electric-vehicle mobility to the masses.' Sounds appealing.

Behind The Story

THE car has essentially stayed the same for the last 100 years, but that's all about to change, BMW sales and marketing director Ian Robertson told us recently. And judging by these amazing spy shots, the plug-in revolution has well and truly begun. If any car company can get electrification spot-on, It's BMW. It isn't used to failing, and the i3 and i8, which are promised to boast the same driving excitement as their combustion-engined cousins, could be the electric vehicles that finally capture the public's imagination - as the iPod did for music players. To that end, as well as being able to download apps, expect to be able to stream engine sounds to the car.

Champion

Tesla's goal is to produce increasingly affordable electric cars for mainstream buyers - and describes itself as 'relentless' in its attempts to drive down the cost of EVs. California-based Tesla designs and manufactures EVs and EV powertrain components, and is currently the only automaker in the US that builds and sells highway-capable EVs in serial production.

Electric C30

VOLVO is on the charge to electric car success - as this C30 feels ready for the showroom. It's quiet, peppy and easy to drive, although the price is still likely to be a major stumbling block. NISSAN'S Leaf has become the first electric vehicle to be crowned European Car of the Year, beating off strong competition from Alfa Romeo and VauxhalL

Tech Analysis

So instead of having a gas turbine drive the wheels, why not let it work as a range-extender to top up the batteries of an electric vehicle This is Jaguar's idea with the C-X75, which has been developed in conjunction with Bladon Jets. So small are the microturbines developed by Bladon (they weigh just 3kg each yet develop 90bhp) that Jag's designers decided to create a 'jacket' around each of the two fitted

Philpry

FROM MT Ofliler RE Electric emissions ITS time we stopped looking at electric cars through rose- or should I say green- -tinted glasses. Whenever EVs are reviewed in Auto Express, the CO2 emissions are always given as zero. This doesn't take into account how the electricity used to charge the battery is generated.

Electric

Battery-electric vehicle (BEV) will come to us in the form of the Focus Electric. Set to begin production late this year, the Focus Electric will feature an electric motor supplied by a liquid-cooled heated 23-hWh lithium battery. Ford claims its new liEVs range to be around 100 miles with 6-8 hours required for a full recharge from a Level 11240-volt charge station.

Chevrolet Volt

171fl G driving to work in a smooth, silent electric vehicle without ever having to hear a gasoline engine the whole way. Of course, you'd also be aware of the fact that your car is producing zero exhaust emissions. No hydrocarbons, no nitrogen oxides, and no carbon monoxide. Nothing. Then imagine being able to operate this electric vehicle over any distance without fear of it fully discharging its battery to leave you stranded. That's the whole idea of Chevrolet's new Volt. It's a concept completely unlike all the hybrid vehicles out there. Those hybrids are essentially gasoline-engine cars with a little electric assist. And that's not a bad thing, but the big difference is that the Volt is an extended-range electric vehicle. the batteries are discharged takes care of the typical electric vehicle's Achilles heel, and its attendant range anxiety. But best of all, the owner's experience is utterly transparent. Since the internal combustion engine is not hooked to the drivetrain, most...

Take A Look Around

As one might expect from an electric vehicle, the interior lighting is LED-based for full illumination with the lowest current draw. Otherwise, the Volt has all the equipment and upscale options you might find on any compact sedan, whatever its There's pushbutton starting and power-operated windows, locks and exterior mirrors. Even items you might not expect on an electric vehicle, such as heated seats, a rear-view camera system, and parking assist sensors, are available as options. A MANDATE WITH DESTINY Two decades ago, gas was cheap and electric-car technology had languished since the early-Eighties fuel crisis. Aside from a niche market of environmentalists and early adopters, the general public wasn't interested in a car with a limited range and a high MSRP. Still, California had apollution problem, and CARB, somewhat speciously, For the past seven years, most manufacturers met the mandate with a mix of hybrids and gas-burning ULEVs, plus a few hydrogen fuel-cell or electric...

Shuanghuan Auto

Concept car that should go into production by 3012. Makers SAIC claim the lithium-iron-phosphate battery pack has an 80 per cent recharge time of 30min, The El is a one-box, three-door four-seater, has a quoted top speed of 120km h and a range of 140km. Roewe reckons it can hit 50km h m under 5.5sec en route to lOOkm h in less than 16sec.it is said to be the first mass-produced all-electric vehicle of any Chinese brand. PC

Meguia

Renault, has a significant interest in the development of electric vehicles, though these are not expected to play any role in New Zealand until at least 2012, That said, the roll-out depends somewhat on peak oil. There are around 600 million cars on the planet at present, and 70 million are added each year. With Chinese and Indian vehicle growth expanding rapidly - in the first quarter, new-car sales in the former totalled in excess of 1 million - experts suggest that surplus oil production capacity could disappear within two years, and some scaremongers are predicting a shortfall of 10 million barrels per day by 2015. The upshot The price of oil is only going in one direction over the next few years, and folk will therefore be considering their options. to over 90 per cent by 2025. Nissan will be in a position to make good use of increases in renewable resources as its pure electric vehicle, the Leaf is coming to market in 2012, though initially as a lease-only alternative.

Dejaview

Back in the early 1000s, I attended an electric-vehicle conference where one of the speakers was a Hughes Aircraft vice president called Howard Wilson. Hughes, you might remember, had been acquired by GM in 1985 at the urging of chairman Roger B. Smith, who bizarrely reasoned that a company that built rockets might have some useful technology to transfer to a company that built Chevys. Wilson was the man Hughes put in charge of figuring out exactly what those technology transfers might be. An engineer, Wilson had worked on the GM Sunraycer, the solar-powered car that drove 1867 miles across Australia on the energy equivalent of 5 gallons of gas. But he was at the conference to talk about GM's electric-car program, which was taking shape back in Detroit Big Oil conspired to kill the electric car. But GM didn't kill the electric car. Nor did Exxon and the other oil companies. The EV1 was dead on arrival. And Howard Wilson knew it. The problem was the battery. A battery is merely an...

Local Engineering

From the start, an electric car is more like a computer than a normal car. It feels different. Just like moving from landline telephones to cellular 'phones was a big jump, it is a massive leap from an internal combustion car to an electric powered one. It's not simply an electric version of a normal car.

Safety First

Electric Vehicles Get Connected A leap from internal-combustion technology to battery-electric vehicles will hring with it a host of challenges that can be solved only with advanced telematics, Electric vehicles will benefit Irom applications that let EV owners locate charging stations, determine how long they can drive before plugging in, and communicate with power companies so they don't overwhelm the existing electrical grid. Having services that help you schedule and plan and make the most efficient route are going to be very important as people change to battery-electric vehicles and

Comparison Test

Like sound (a deafening 104 decibels at full throttle) to the laundry list of race-carlike things the Ferrari can do. Should the future bring a world of electric cars with whiny little four-cylinder engines whose only job is to moan out electricity, then this V-8 may come to be considered internal combustion's last great breath.

Aquaplaning

The electric car goes even further with a 'range extender', which is a small, highly efficient internal-combustion engine. When the battery reaches a low charge level after a long drive with the electric motor alone, the range extender kicks in to recharge the battery. The range extender always runs at the ideal operating point, meaning that it consumes less fueL Bosch estimates that the market for electric drives will gain in significance from 2020. Of 100 million newly manufactured cars, six million will by then be hybrid vehicles and three million plug-in hybrids and electric cars.

Quoted

Regarding the failure of Washington to include propane in bills promoting natural gas and electric vehicles, Joe Thompson, president of Roush CleanTech, said, While we commend the goals of S.3815 and S.3495 to reduce our dependence on foreign oil, we are disappointed that it does not support the inclusion of all alternative fuels.

In Dica Tion

It is in this milieu that the recent unveiling and introduction of the Tata Indica Vista EV (and its slightly more radical derivative, the EVX) become all the more significant. Developed in collaboration with Electrovaya (Toronto,Canada) and Miljaoil Grenland nnovasjon (a Norway-based company in which Tata Motors European Technical Centre has a 50.3 per cent holding), the Vista EV was first unveiled at the Geneva Motor Show in March last year. Not much ground-breaking stuff there at first glance, but consider this -the Vista EV won the inaugural Royal Automobile Club (RAC) Brighton to London Future Car Challenge and was also awarded the honour of being the Most Economical Small Passenger Electric Vehicle (EV) and the Most Economical and Environment-friendly Small Passenger EV in the same contest. A contest wherein Tata saw competition from established makers like BMW, Smart and

Early Adopter

That Nissan's Leaf is the first mass-market EV to carry a reasonable price tag is a triumph for the consumer. that the car is so normal to drive represents a small revolution for electric cars. electric vehicle, the Nissan Leaf Of course, the Leaf is an Electric Vehicle (EV). Henceforth there probably will be some obfuscation of what an EV is as

Emission Zero

Stolen the headlines in 2010, but hear this they are NOT the future of motoring. Major car manufacturers agree that hydrogen fuel-cell electric vehicles (FCEV) 'remain the end game' for the long-term, which will be made feasible in Europe by a massive investment in hydrogen filling stations. GM has just revealed that its first FCEV will go on sale in 2015, while a senior

News

CEP's activities are supported by the German Government, which is investing around R20 billion to support the development of hydrogen fuel cell and electric vehicle technologies. Toyota will contribute five of its zero-emissions FCHV-adv hydrogen fuel cell vehicles to the programme in Germany by 2011. Toyota showcased its latest developments in EV (electric vehicle), plug-in hybrid vehicles, battery design and hydrogen fuel cell hybrid technologies at the Geneva motor show. The

Toyota

'HE maker of the coolest electric car in the world hoo< ed up with the planet's largest motor manufacturer in May (Issue 1,116). Japanese giant oyota bought into Tesla - the Californian firm beh nd the Lotus Elise-based Roadster - to the tune of 35million. The first fruits of this partnership were revealed at the LA Motor Show in November (ssue 1,142), when Toyota launched its RAV4 EV, co-developed with Tesla.

Shock Treatment

For starters, the i-MIEV (the name stands for Mitsubishi Innovative Electric Vehicle) doesn't feel like some futuristic collection of technologies that delight the technojunkies but bore everyone else. It looks like a town car to rival the likes of a Mini or Micra and above all it drives like a town car, zippy and nippy and quick off the mark.

The New Sonata Turbo

COKE OR PEPSI MAC or PC iPhone or BlackBerry As if our lives weren't already besieged by choice, we now have the yin yang of Volt and Leaf. The Chevy Volt, celebrated elsewhere in this issue, is the electric car with a gasoline-powered generator to remove range restrictions. The Nissan Leaf 's claim to fame is a clean break from petroleum. This is the world's first mass-produced automobile conceived and engineered as a pure electric.

Nundrum

Toyota has a stated goal to sell one million hybrids a year as soon as possible this decade, and to offer a hybrid version in every model series during the 0 0s This is a noble objective, but in the meantime, there is tremendous activity amongst the worldwide competition to introduce plug-in electric vehicles, and to expand the use of alternative fuels such as Ethanol, CNG, LNG and LPG. The potential for fuel cells, and hydrogen as a base fuel, should also not be discounted.

Nissan Leaf Sl

The first disappointment with the Leaf, Nissan's new electric car, is that it has only one 12-volt accessor)' port. You might think that an EV could charge a cell phone unto eternity, but every watt of juice in the Leaf's 192 lithium-ion battery cells is precious. Power not associated with forward motion comes at a cost. The headlights, air conditioning, and even the stereo all impact maximum range.

Tesla Model S

Why it matters With its enchanting Roadster model, Tesla proved it could deliver an electric, but that's a tin toy compared with the Model S, and it's also based on a Lotus. The Model Swill be by far the most sophisticated and luxurious electric vehicle on the currently barren electric stage if it debuts on time in late 2011. Powertrain A larger variation of the Roadster's 375-volt AC electric motor, powered by a range of standard and optional battery packs delivering ranges from 160 miles in the base pack to 300 miles courtesy of an 8000-ccll lithium-ion monster. PPPpPPM WITII ITS NEW LEAF, Nissanis BittiiMiMMi blowing in the wind, and the wind these days blows toward electric vchiclcs. Scheduled to arrive in minuscule numbers (fewer than 500 cars) at the end of 2010, the Leaf is the fully electric commuter car Nissan has been promising for several years. The Japanese automaker says the Leaf is the lead vehicle in a full line of electric cars now on the drawing board.

Cammisa

The hybrid is just a stepping-stone toward an electric car that doesn't depend on combustion. Is there no simple solution Unfortunately not. And there's no simple answer, either, to the question of whether hybrids are here to stay or if they'll be replaced by some sort of electric vehicle. Only time will tell.

Response

Some cars feature automatic disabling of fuel pumps and other electrical equipment. All are engineered with these and high-pressure components specifically located and clearly identified. This is especially crucial with hybrids and electric vehicles in which high-voltage systems are present.

Brush Runabout

WOODS 1905, electric, an extraordinary early electric with wooden coachwork, see website for photos and price. Hyman Ltd, 314-524-6000, MO www.hymanltd.com WANTED collector seeking pre-1912 one or two-cylinder car, running and or complete, under 20,000. 610696-8449, PA mortier9 hotmail.com WANTED early electric vehicles (pre-1920). Details to jimlort aol.com

Sonata Hybrid

Finally we climb into the Blue Drive EV (fully Electric Vehicle), called the iio Electric. Simply put, it's a Hyundai iio that has had its guts replaced with electric motors and batteries. A range of 160km is achievable from its i6kWh battery and 49kW motor. It too receives a firmer helm which complements the heavier kerb weight of the car. Peak torque stands at noNm, the full complement of which is instantly available at each prod of the throtde. Not that startling acceleration matters much because the car won't be for sale anytime soon, but expect the technology to rear its head in future Hyundai and Kia products.

Tech Know

BATTERY EVS MAY have stolen the headlines in 2010, but hear this they are NOT the future of motoring. Major car makers agree that hydrogen fuel-cell electric vehicles (FCEV) 'remain the end game' for the long-term, which will be made feasible in Europe by a massive investment in hydrogen filling stations.

On Sale In Us

We rise early, and by 9 a.m., we're motoring through countryside so wet and green, it could be Ireland, except for locals who look like Eskimos. Greasy mud (so thick we have to put the bike on the truck and Joe in our car) aside, the first bit of the Road of Bones highway is surprisingly nice.The graded gravel roars under our tires, and the elasticity of the CVT transmission makes the driving experience akin to piloting an electric car in a cement mixer.

Engine Technology

Another reason for insisting on a front differential is a story told to me by the late, great, Paul MacCready. His company, AeroVironment, had been commissioned by General Motors to develop the Impact electric car, the forerunner of the production EV1. The Impact was fitted with twin Inboard electric motors, like the

Kia Sorento

CESEEGQIO Nissan starts its slow rollout of the all-electric Leaf in December and expects to produce 100.000 Leafs (Leaves ) in Japan over the next two years, before a Tennessee plant comes online to add an additional 150,000 per year. That's a tall order for the world's first mass-market electric vehicle, but there may just be enough demand for the Leaf.

Gm Ev1 1998

Initially a pure electric car, at the 1998 Detroit show GM put forward a gas turbine proposal Behind the scenes, work at Jaguar's test facility is continuing on the durability of the units. Chris Bladon told evo that the trick of how to couple a gas turbine engine spinning at 80.000rpm to a generator is pretty much sorted now, allowing the project to progress to the next stage and real engine trials to take place. Chris is hopeful he will be driving to the next Paris motor show in a prototype gas turbine-assisted electric car. We're hoping to hitch a ride.

The New Roadster

Tesla opened its store in Monaco on November 24th 2009, a showroom for the entire Mediterranean area. Sold at a price of 91,000 Euros VAT incl., the electric Tesla Roadster has become through the years the most famous ecological car in the world. Its owners include celebrities like George Clooney, Leonardo Di Caprio, Matt Damon, or even Arnold Schwarzenegger This revolutionary car can travel 340 kilometers on a single charge, reach a top speed of 210 kph and accelerate from 0 to I OOkph in only 3.7 seconds. Full battery charging takes 3.5 hours at a dedicated loading station. In Monaco, over 200 parking slots are already reserved for electric cars in public car parks and electricity for battery charging is being offered. A charging station forTesla's and other electric cars also exists at the La Costa car park in the ecological Protech car washing center

At A Glance W

Twintercooler For Mk6 Golf Litre Turbo

Electric car that redefines what we think of perfo-mance cars. Even with the Tesla Roadster making waves in the sports car market, most tuning fans (myself included) still scoff at the thought of a true performance electric car. Surely their only function is to provide boring, eco-friendly transport Electric cars are just souped-up milk floats, right Electric cars potentially have huge performance advantages

Little Go Green

Left This '62 Sprite waited a long time for restoration, surviving a wreck, a fire and 30 years of storage before getting a chance to illustrate how green a British car can go. Below The electric car gets 50 miles on a battery charge with a top speed of 70 mph and an amortized cost of 5 to 7 cents-per-mile for operation. As a teenager during the gas crisis of the latc-'7()s, Mark first read about electric cars in Popular Mechanics and Popular Science magazines. That In the mid-'90s, Mark had the great idea to restore the Sprite as an electric car. but it wasn't until 2007 that life gave him the break necessary for this minor engineering feat. By this lime, the parts had Ix-en in storage for nearly 30 years.

Facilities

At the first gauzy signs of spring last year, I took my maiden voyage in an electric car. I'd like to herald it as the future of motoring, as the corporate press relations machines have told me to do. But that would mean forgetting everything I know about all of the other doomed EVs that have rolled silently across the American landscape since Theodore Roosevelt was president. It was all packaged up inside a new MINI Cooper, so it was fun to drive. The MINI-E launched off the line like a Funny Car and whirred along twisting, turning roads like the love child of a golf cart Will we all be driving electric vehicles someday History doesn't seem to favor it. But then, humans had been plowing face first into the dirt for centuries before Wilbur and Orville Wright finally flew through the air above Kitty Hawk.

In The Beginning

Simple as that. However, back in 2004 the world was a different place. Market analysts at the time said that, by 2015, there could maybe be a market for 9 000 electric cars a year. This is not the kind of information you can take to an investor looking for an immediate return. It is at this point that the South African government, in the form of the Innovation Fund (part of the Department of Science and Technology) became involved. That was in 2005, Meiring says. When we showed the Joule in Paris in 2008 it was still a question whether electric cars were the way forward. We had a car, and Pininfarina had a car, and those where to the only two serious offerings. Then, in 2010, when we showed the Joule in Geneva, every single OEM had an electric car on display and communicated intentions to produce them. Of course, we were not naive to think that we were the only ones to read the signs. The electric cars in the market back then could not be the benchmark of...

Mike Connor

PHIL MARTENSJ lasting legacy at FoMoCo No global RWD platform. The SI 97 Mustang and Australia's Ford Falcon were originally to share a light, inexpensive independent rear suspension. However, Martens reportedly managed to persuade Bill Ford he could save 100 a car by installing a live rear axle instead. The move meant Falcon and Mustang went separate ways, and effectively stymied any potential to develop low-cost replacements for the doddery Panther trio with independent rear suspension. So Ford now has to figure out what to do for the next-gen Mustang due for the car's 50th anniversary in 2014, work out whether the Falcon platform can last much longer as a stand-alone piece as high fuel prices cut into sales, and watch as Hyundai moves into the large, entry-level lux market the Town Car used to own with the Genesis and the forthcoming Equus. Oh, and instead of saving money, insiders say the Mustang's live rear axle actually ended up costing 98 per car more than the original...

The Insider

Car manufacturers want us to believe that electric vehicles are the future, but Metcalfe sees them as a huge step backwards ne of the lasting impressions from the Paris motor show was how you couldn't move without tripping over the brightly coloured cables feeding sparks to all the electric cars on display this year. Electric vehicles, or EVs, were everywhere, and, like it or not, today's motor industry is obsessed with these devices. With this in mind, I see the Tesla as the asparagus of the electric-car showroom - green but tasty, if quite pricey. The Nissan Leaf, however, must be the Brussels sprout of the EV world. For a start, it's not exactly pretty. Despite Nissan's designers having a fabulous opportunity to show us what they could do with a dean-sheet design, they bottled it and created something with all the charisma of over-boiled cabbage. But it's not just the looks

The Numbers

TO PUT IT SIMP LY, the Chevy Volt was far and away the biggest surprise to every editor at this year's toBest event. None of us imagined that nestling into the glass cockpit would bring the words automotive bliss and electric vehicle together in the same sentence. The smooth-riding Volt can't shred tarmac like a V W GTI or infuse fun into the familv-sedan segment like a Honda Accord or a Hyundai Sonata. Think of the Volt as smile-inducingXanax for range anxiety something all other EVs evoke. Canceling the range limitation from the EV equation doesn't make it perfect, though. A tight back seat, limited cargo capacity, and ageneral lack of horsepower though plenty have somewhere to be would normally eliminate a 38oo-pound porker from contention. However, one would need to be driving straight through the Library of Congress to detect the switchover from EV mode to gas-electric hybrid

Buying Hybrids

Accenture's survey shows that six out of 10 consumers are more likely to buy a hybrid or electric vehicle only when it is superior to gasoline-only models in every way. So while automakers are increasingly focused on addressing the demand for greater fuel efficiency and economy, they also should address those areas that continue to influence the consumer.

Hybrids

There was no hue and cry for an affordable sedan powered mainly by electricity. The electric two-seaters and demonstration vehicles introduced in the past two decades roused little interest. But Chevy was convinced that the time was right for an electric car that would never leave an owner stranded.

The Twitter Feed

Despite packing a 1.4-liter gasoline four-cylinder under the hood, the Volt drives like any other single-gear electric vehicle. The 150-hp motor is the only propulsion source connected to the front wheels, with the gasoline engine kicking on after roughly forty miles to spin a generator. It's still unclear what fuel-economy numbers will land on the Volt's window sticker, but we do know that the car won't earn the 230-mpg rating that GM widely

Aston Martin One77

IT'S NOT ALL electric cars and sensible eco chariots in 2011 the new year will usher in a selection of old-school supercars too. HHg HH Mercedes will launch the SLS Roadster (left) in BSm the first half, with a cloth roof, popup roll bars and a hard-charging V8 like the coupe's. No gullwing doors though.

Behind The Wheel

Lutjeharms Body

The prototypes still use hydraulic power steering, and that's the first thing that breaks the silence when the steering wheel is turned. Production cars will use electric power assistance. Move the DNA lever forward, release the electronic park brake and you're off. It takes a while to get used to driving an electric car - the torque is immediate and lifting off the throttle leads to a strong engine braking effect as the regenerative braking kicks in. But it takes less than five minutes to become acclimatised. build cars and that it can do hightech. However, the IDC feels strongly from a risk point of view that we need to seek a joint venture with an overseas OEM, but it's not as simple as that. The European and Japanese OEMs saw the writing on the wall at the same time that we did. So there's no point in approaching them. But in China and India there are possibilities. Their focus is so much on their own domestic markets that they've done very little on electric cars.

Hilton Holloway

Is the electric car already doomed The car industry is finally developing a coherent plan for a low-consumption future and the signs ire diat pure electric vehicles will have been mosdy written out of die script by 2020. 'The signs are that pure electric vehicles will have been mostly written out of the script by 2020'

Sweet Home Alabama

Next-generation C-Class, set to debut as a MY2015 car, at its Tuscaloosa, Alabama, plant, as well as in Germany, China, and other sites. U.S. production will fulfill local demand, which Benz expects to rise. The 2015 model will be on an all-new platform and will use Mercedes'multi-drive concept, with gas and diesel powerplants, mild and full hybrids, plug-in hybrids, range-extender electric vehicles, full EV and fuel-cell variants.

A drivers car

Ford feels this is a significant advantage, given the range limitations of electric vehicles. The company also claims the Focus Electric is a more economical alternative to the GM Volt, which still uses ICE power. Volvo buzzing after electric-car crash test Concerns have been raised about the possible electrocution of passengers and rescue workers in collisions involving electric cars, but Volvo believes its EVs will be just as crashworthv as its regular models. At Detroit, Volvo displayed a C30 electric vehicle that had undergone a frontal collision test at 64km h. The President and CEO of Volvo Cars, Stefan Jacoby, said it proved as safe as a regular C30. He added that to make EVs as safe as conventional cars it is imperative to separate the batteries from crumple zones and the passenger compartment.

The Sa Market

Is Mzansi ready for the electric car The answer may not be what you think. Diana Blake, Optimal Energy's sales and marketing director, certainly believes there is South Africa is actually better-placed than most countries for the electric car, she says. Most people who can afford a car of the Joule's price (R235 000 to R280 000), own a house with a garage with an electrical outlet.

Tested

In time, it's also anticipated that underground car parks will offer charging stations to cope with those looking for longer journeys. It's also hoped that the Federal or State Governments will provide buyers with incentives such as those experienced overseas where inner city congestion taxes, parking charges and some other costs are waived for those driving an electric vehicle. The i-MIEV Is just the first of a design line of electric vehicles to head out of the Mitsubishi stable and already there have been sneak previews at various car shows around the world of what else might soon be on the market.

Preston Lerner

Reinert is serving on a future-of-the-car panel at a high-powered green-think conference sponsored by Fortune magazine and featuring heavyweights such as President Bill Clinton and Bill Ford. Although the symposium is being held in a button-down bastion of Orange County, the ambience is totally Silicon Valley, all iPhones and Aeron chairs, with lots of clever but undercapitalized tech entrepreneurs sniffing around for angel investors. At the moment, Shai Agassi, the charismatic founder of Better Place, is making a dynamic pitch for creating vast networks of battery-charging stations to support electric vehicles that will, he claims, be cheaper than the equivalent gasoline-powered cars. While executives from Ford, BMW, and Fisker Automotive listen with polite smiles, Reinert squirms in his seat, crosses and recrosses his legs, and generally behaves like a schoolkid who can't wait for the bell to ring so he can escape for recess. been especially critical of the commercial prospects for...

The Enthusiast

Year's veteran trip down to Brighton, but an alternative was on offer. Tesla arranged for me to drive one of its electric cars in the RAC Brighton to London Future Car Challenge. If you think electric cars are slow, have a range no further than the end of the road and are driven by vegetarians, you may have to reconsider. There has been serious progress since the Sinclair C5 Imine lurks in the office, so far failing to become the next collectors' classic).

Erj1466

WHAT IT IS The next step in the electric car program BMW started with the Mini E. This time, the donor car is a 1-series. with its in-line six replaced by a 168-hp electric motor. WHAT IT IS The ForTwo has always looked like an electric vehicle. Now it is one. Power comes from a lithium-ion battery developed by Tesla.

Funding Issues

There have been two major reasons for the delays in the Joule project. At first we said we would build 4 000 cars a year. The business model was built around that number, and we could do that. However, after the hugely positive response in Paris and when market analysts started confirming our expectations of the electric car market in the next few years, we decided to go for full series production of 50 000 cars or more a year instead. Today, with a very small delta, we can do 4 000 cars a year. But to do 50 000 a year is a different story. That's 200 cars a day. It's a different ballgame. It's expensive and it takes time. That decision alone added two years to the plan. We want to establish a South African car company, and a South African electric car industry. For the first time in a long time, a start-up company can make a big difference. South Africa has proven that it can

Jeep Ev Concept

The Jeep EV, a range-extended electric vehicle, backs up the electric motor and battery pack with an integrated electric generator to produce additional energy to power the electric-drive system when needed. The 200-kW (268 horsepower) electric motor generates 295 pound-feet of torque. With approximately eight gallons of gasoline, the Jeep EV has a range of 400 miles, including 40 miles of all-electric operation.

Superlight Concept

Nissan recently unveiled its Leaf electric vehicle in Japan, equipped with a sophisticated EV-iT system that facilitates electric driving in a gasoline-dominated world. The Leaf's electric motor was developed in-house and delivers 80 kW of power and 206 lb.-ft. of torque that result in excellent acceleration, especially from a standstill. The 24 kWh laminated compact lithium-ion battery pack is mounted under the vehicle floor so as to not compromise cabin or cargo space. Nissan is claiming a range of more than 100 miles on a full charge.

Tduring Cars

Honorary president of the MIA, said 'Drayson Racing have paved the way in green racing over the past four years with second generation biofuels and we have been looking at electric vehicle technologies for a while, waiting for the technology to mature and for the right time to enter this exciting new field. The team at VCUP have taken a bold step forward to create the world's first electric racing series, we want to be part of it and we want to win it ' In what is perhaps the biggest endorsement for electric car racing yet, ALMS race-winning team, Drayson Racing, has pulled the plug on its mainstream Sportscar programme to race instead in the EVCUP - a new series for zero-emission racecars. The team, which has raced at Le Mans and last year won the ALMS counter at Elkhart Lake with its LMP1 Lola, will enter a Westfield RACER in the Sports EV (electric vehicle) series, which is a part of

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